South America

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South America

South America, the fourth-largest continent, is home to diverse landscapes, rich cultures, and a vibrant history. It extends from the Gulf of Darién in the northwest to the archipelago of Tierra del Fuego in the south, encompassing an area of approximately 17.8 million square kilometers. The continent is bounded by the Caribbean Sea to the northwest and north, the Atlantic Ocean to the northeast, east, and southeast, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. South America is connected to North America by the Isthmus of Panama, a narrow land bridge that separates the two continents.

South America’s physical geography is characterized by its towering Andes Mountains, which run along the western coast, forming the world’s longest continental mountain range. The Amazon River, the world’s largest river by volume, flows through the continent’s vast Amazon rainforest, the world’s largest tropical rainforest, covering an area of over 5.5 million square kilometers. Other notable physical features include the Atacama Desert, the world’s driest non-polar desert, and the Patagonian steppe, a vast, semi-arid grassland region.

South America’s rich cultural heritage is shaped by its diverse indigenous populations, European colonizers, and African slaves. The continent is home to a variety of languages, including Spanish, Portuguese, French, English, and various indigenous languages. South American culture is vibrant and expressive, evident in its music, dance, art, and cuisine.

South America’s history is marked by pre-Columbian civilizations, European colonization, and independence movements. The continent’s pre-Columbian civilizations, such as the Inca Empire and the Maya civilization, left behind impressive ruins and artifacts that continue to fascinate and inspire. European colonization, primarily by Spain and Portugal, had a profound impact on South America’s history, shaping its languages, religions, and political systems. Independence movements swept across the continent in the early 19th century, leading to the establishment of independent republics.

South America is a continent of contrasts, with bustling cities, remote villages, lush rainforests, arid deserts, and towering mountains. Its rich cultural heritage, diverse populations, and captivating natural beauty make it a destination of endless fascination.

A América do Sul é composta por 12 países independentes, além de um território ultramarino francês.

Países e capitais da América do Sul:

País Capital
Argentina Buenos Aires
Bolívia La Paz (sede do governo) e Sucre (sede do Poder Judiciário)
Brasil Brasília
Chile Santiago
Colômbia Bogotá
Equador Quito
Guiana Georgetown
Paraguai Assunção
Peru Lima
Suriname Paramaribo
Uruguai Montevidéu
Venezuela Caracas
Guiana Francesa Caiena

A Guiana Francesa é um território ultramarino da França, localizado na costa norte da América do Sul. Sua capital é Caiena.

Os países da América do Sul são membros da União das Nações Sul-Americanas (UNASUL), uma organização regional criada em 2008 para promover a integração econômica, política e cultural dos países da região.

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